QuickSmart in Schools Research Overview

QuickSmart in Schools involves students being withdrawn from class for 30 minutes on three occasions a week for 30 weeks. It is an exit program with clear criteria to identify when students have acquired certain skills and are to exit the program.

QuickSmart is an example of an evolutionary student intervention program with a practical and student-focused interpretation of learning, and theoretical underpinning, drawn from advances in educational neuroscience and cognition. Currently, the program is offered in over 700 schools to more than 10,000 students across Australia.

QuickSmart stands as one of a few interventions either nationally or internationally in which evaluations examine implementation at all sites of its development. Thus, the successes of QuickSmart scale-up are well opened to public scrutiny. Analyses of QuickSmart since 2001 have identified impressive statistically significant end-of-program and longitudinal gains using probability measures and effect sizes that confirm verbal and written reports by principals, teachers, teacher aides and parents.

Independent (federal, state-wide or standardised tests) assessments gathered from QuickSmart and comparison students over ten years consistently show that Indigenous and non-Indigenous QuickSmart students have made substantial academic improvement. Research data collected from across Australia report:

Research Aims

QuickSmart: A programmatic research endeavour*

* the QuickSmart team (Professor John Pegg, Associate Professor Lorraine Graham, Ms Jenny Thomas, Ms Eve Croeser and Ms Noelene Raymond) were awarded the inaugural University of New England Vice-Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Research in 2009.

QuickSmart can be considered applied research that is "undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective"(p.8). This program of research does not represent a single research activity. Underpinning and informing QuickSmart is a longitudinal programmatic coordinated set of research projects that are aimed at understanding and addressing numeracy and literacy under-performance evidenced by middle-school students across Australia.

It is the position of members of the SiMERR National Centre that making meaningful progress in a contested and difficult area of social science enquiry requires longitudinal and programmatic research. In our view, this is the only justifiable and efficient way to move the field and practice forward. The significance of the QuickSmart research program is that the research questions of most interest evolve as the activity continues, with deeper and more complicated issues addressed as the quantum of data allows for increased sophistication in the techniques used. Likewise, the issues addressed offer deeper insights into the activity as the research program continues (e.g., what are the mechanisms of deliberate practice and feedback within the QuickSmart lessons? Why does performance uniformly improve for QuickSmart students in schools that implement the program in the second and subsequent years?)

The research data are collected from schools that typically make up learning communities comprising a cluster of between 10 and 15 schools. These clusters are spread throughout the states and territories of Australia. Funding for the research comes from federal and state education authorities and schools, and competitive research grants as well as through philanthropic and business education sponsors.

Researchers within the SiMERR National Centre use the QuickSmart data in a systematic way for theory development concerning the real social problems that accompany the need to support students in today's classrooms in different locations, under different funding arrangements, with varying levels of support mechanisms. There are logical connections and progressions within the developments and findings of QuickSmart from cluster to cluster that evolve over each year. As new learning and practice emerges the resulting ideas are continually trialed and evaluated.

These research drivers result in the "creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This ... includes synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes."(p.8)

The research that informs QuickSmart is focused particularly on cognitive processing, the conditions necessary to be in place for students to gain facility with lower-order tasks or basic academic skills, and the potential complementary effects of the improved mastery of these skills on higher-order learning processes.

Accordingly, the initial research funded in 2001 had three overall goals that still guide our programmatic research endeavours:

  1. to investigate the nature of improved fluency on the acquisition of basic academic skills;
  2. to observe whether improved fluency with the basics has any effect on the performance of more demanding academic tasks, such as comprehension and mathematical problem solving, as reflected in students' performance on state-wide tests or standardized achievement tests; and
  3. to monitor longitudinally the retention or further development/ refinement in QuickSmart students of both basic and higher-order skills.

Ongoing Research Aims of the QuickSmart Program of Research

Given the increase in the number of schools interested in implementing and refining QuickSmart programs, the initial research goals have evolved and been greatly expanded. Currently, QuickSmart programmatic research aims to:

Since QuickSmart has been implemented in an increasing variety of schools for ten years, the focus of research has also developed to consider:

There is a systematic element to the QuickSmart research that precisely fits the definition of "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge ... and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications"(p.8). This creative use of new knowledge informs the investigation of the implementation of QuickSmart as an evolving program by clusters of schools that are guided by research evidence. Our approach is systematic, particularly in the processing of information that is informing the development of new programs and the work of SiMERR's Higher Degree Research (HDR) students. For example current analytic research completed in 2010:

  1. has provided evidence on the optimal length of a QuickSmart program by examining results from a 20-week versus a 30-week program., and
  2. the magnitude of learning gains have been examined by investigating the results obtained by the students of instructors who have completed their first year of professional development compared to those still completing this professional development requirement.

In the case of HDR students, the recipient of the Learning Difficulties Australia Tertiary Student Research Award for 2008 was Anne Bellert, a Ph D candidate at the SiMERR National Centre. Anne submitted her thesis (The Effects Of Improved Automaticity In Basic Academic Skills On Test Performance: A Study Of Learning Difficulties In The Middle-School Years), which uses the QuickSmart intervention, in May 2011. In making this Award the Judging Committee noted the particular strengths of this research in terms of its broader application for intervention for students with learning difficulties in a classroom situation, with a specific focus on mathematics intervention.

The information acquired from working with the QuickSmart program has also sparked and informed the development of other intervention programs focusing on different areas of learning difficulty, with students outside of the Year 5 to Year 8 range, in different topic areas, and with links to tertiary study.

Acknowledgement: Quotes are taken from Higher Education Research Data Collection, Specifications for the collection of 2010 data. Research Funding and Policy Branch, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, January, 2011